Eva Erman.
Eva Erman.

It is a five-year project that will receive 6 million SEK from the Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation.


Since the 1990s fundamental transformations of international organizations (IOs) such as the World Trade Organization and the African Union have taken place, witnessing a shift from interstate cooperation to the involvement of transnational actors (TNAs), such as non-governmental organizations and social movements.


This opening up of international organizations to transnational actors is widely seen as a welcome transformation in global politics, generating not only a broader and deeper collaboration but also a democratization of global governance through increased transparency, inclusion, and openness. However, apart from the agreement on its general desirability, we still know very little about why and how international organizations should involve transnational actors in global decision-making. Thus, while important contributions have been made in the empirical research in recent years in the form of systematic studies of where, how and why international organizations include transnational actors in decision-making, the same systematic attempt to answer the question of where, how and why international organizations should include transnational actors have not been made in political theory.